$4 Disney Bendon 45029 Coco Black Paper Coloring Activity Book wi Toys Games Arts Crafts Drawing Painting Supplies Disney Bendon 45029 5 ☆ very popular Coco Black Activity Paper wi Book Coloring Book,Black,/environmentally496604.html,$4,Paper,Coco,Bendon,wi,Activity,ccsstp.com,Toys Games , Arts Crafts , Drawing Painting Supplies,45029,Coloring,Disney $4 Disney Bendon 45029 Coco Black Paper Coloring Activity Book wi Toys Games Arts Crafts Drawing Painting Supplies Book,Black,/environmentally496604.html,$4,Paper,Coco,Bendon,wi,Activity,ccsstp.com,Toys Games , Arts Crafts , Drawing Painting Supplies,45029,Coloring,Disney Disney Bendon 45029 5 ☆ very popular Coco Black Activity Paper wi Book Coloring
Disney Bendon 45029 Coco Black Paper Coloring Activity Book wi
Disney Bendon 45029 Coco Black Paper Coloring Activity Book wi
This fits your .
Make sure this fits
by entering your model number.
48 black paper coloring pages
4 neon, Bright Idea crayons to make every image pop
Tear and share pages make showcasing your little artistâs masterpieces a snap
Officially licensed product
Ideal for ages 3 and up
Style:Coco Coloring Crayons
Join your favorite Coco characters on an unforgettable adventure with Bendon's Coco Black Paper Coloring and Activity Book with Crayons! This unique book features 48 inverted coloring pagesâwhat's usually white is now blackâwith 4 neon crayons to make every image pop like never before.
From the manufacturer
Fill today with creative play
Spark creativity in the hearts and minds of all with childrenâs products from Bendon. We partner with retailers around the world to deliver high-quality coloring and activity products at an affordable cost to delight children everywhere.
Every child has a favorite character-or a hundred! Since 2001, as one of the country's leading producer of coloring and activity books, we've been bringing the characters kids love to life with creative, hands-on products that encourage imagination and fun. Bendon is committed to growing right alongside your child, delivering activities for the evolving line-up of characters they love into the future. We're dedicated to providing creative play solutions for kids and their favorite characters.
Coco 24-Page Mosaic Sticker Book
Coco Imagine Magic Ink Pages
Coco 48-Page Coloring amp; Activity Book with Crayons
What to expect from Bendon products:
An easy decision for a single gift or if you're buying for a group.
Don't just watch your favorite characters, interact with them.
A sugar-free reward, perfect for birthday parties, road trips, or quiet time at home.
Disney Bendon 45029 Coco Black Paper Coloring Activity Book wi
Mutations in EPHB4 cause human venous valve aplasia
In this issue, Lyons et al. report that human mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor EPH receptor B4 (EPHB4) result in venous valve disease. Further, using mouse models, they demonstrate that ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling is required for venous valve development. The cover image shows a large WT mouse venous valve in the femoral vein at postnatal day 6, with staining for smooth muscle α-actin (white), PECAM1 (blue), Foxc2 (green), and Prox1 (red).
The prevalence of hypertension is increasing globally, while strategies for prevention and treatment of hypertension remain limited. FG-4592 (Roxadustat) is a potentially novel, orally active small-molecule hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizer and is being used clinically to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of FG-4592 on hypertension. In an angiotensin II (Ang II) hypertension model, FG-4592 abolished hypertensive responses; prevented vascular thickening, cardiac hypertrophy, and kidney injury; downregulated AGTR1 expression; and enhanced AGTR2, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and HIF1α protein levels in the aortas of mice. Additionally, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in blood and urine were diminished by FG-4592 treatment. In vascular smooth muscle cells, FG-4592 treatment reduced angiotensin receptor type 1 (AGTR1) and increased AGTR2 levels, while preventing Ang II–induced oxidative stress. In vascular endothelial cells, FG-4592 upregulated total and phosphorylated eNOS. Moreover, FG-4592 treatment was hypotensive in L-NAME–induced hypertension. In summary, FG-4592 treatment remarkably ameliorated hypertension and organ injury, possibly through stabilizing HIF1α and subsequently targeting eNOS, AGTR1, AGTR2, and oxidative stress. Therefore, in addition to its role in treating CKD anemia, FG-4592 could be explored as a treatment for hypertension associated with high renin angiotensin system (RAS) activity or eNOS defects.
Venous valve (VV) failure causes chronic venous insufficiency, but the molecular regulation of valve development is poorly understood. A primary lymphatic anomaly, caused by mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase EPHB4, was recently described, with these patients also presenting with venous insufficiency. Whether the venous anomalies are the result of an effect on VVs is not known. VV formation requires complex “organization” of valve-forming endothelial cells, including their reorientation perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Using quantitative ultrasound, we identified substantial VV aplasia and deep venous reflux in patients with mutations in EPHB4. We used a GFP reporter in mice to study expression of its ligand, ephrinB2, and analyzed developmental phenotypes after conditional deletion of floxed Ephb4 and Efnb2 alleles. EphB4 and ephrinB2 expression patterns were dynamically regulated around organizing valve-forming cells. Efnb2 deletion disrupted the normal endothelial expression patterns of the gap junction proteins connexin37 and connexin43 (both required for normal valve development) around reorientating valve-forming cells and produced deficient valve-forming cell elongation, reorientation, polarity, and proliferation. Ephb4 was also required for valve-forming cell organization and subsequent growth of the valve leaflets. These results uncover a potentially novel cause of primary human VV aplasia.
Oliver Lyons, James Walker, Christopher Seet, Mohammed Ikram, Adam Kuchta, Andrew Arnold, Magda Hernández-Vásquez, Maike Frye, Gema Vizcay-Barrena, Roland A. Fleck, Ashish S. Patel, Soundrie Padayachee, Peter Mortimer, Steve Jeffery, Siren Berland, Sahar Mansour, Pia Ostergaard, Taija Makinen, Bijan Modarai, Prakash Saha, Alberto Smith
Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumor with no curative treatment options, and immune checkpoint blockade has not yet shown major impact. We hypothesized that drugs targeting mitosis might affect the tumor microenvironment and sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy. We used 2 glioblastoma mouse models with different immunogenicity profiles, GL261 and SB28, to test the efficacy of antineoplastic and immunotherapy combinations. The spindle assembly checkpoint activator BAL101553 (lisavanbulin), agonistic anti-CD40 antibody, and double immune checkpoint blockade (anti–programmed cell death 1 and anti–cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein 4; anti–PD-1 and anti–CTLA-4) were evaluated individually or in combination for treating orthotopic GL261 and SB28 tumors. Genomic and immunological analyses were used to predict and interpret therapy responsiveness. BAL101553 monotherapy increased survival in immune checkpoint blockade–resistant SB28 glioblastoma tumors and synergized with anti-CD40 antibody, in a T cell–independent manner. In contrast, the more immunogenic and highly mutated GL261 model responded best to anti–PD-1 and anti–CTLA-4 therapy and more modestly to BAL101553 and anti-CD40 combination. Our results show that BAL101553 is a promising therapeutic agent for glioblastoma and could synergize with innate immune stimulation. Overall, these data strongly support immune profiling of glioblastoma patients and preclinical testing of combination therapies with appropriate models for particular patient groups.
Vassilis Genoud, Felipe I. Espinoza, Eliana Marinari, Viviane Rochemont, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Paul McSheehy, Felix Bachmann, Heidi A. Lane, Paul R. Walker
ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response in the periphery as well as the central nervous system have been linked to various metabolic abnormalities. Chemically lowering protein kinase R–like ER kinase (PERK) activity within the hypothalamus leads to decreased food intake and body weight. However, the cell populations required in this response remain undefined. In the current study, we investigated the effects of proopiomelanocortin-specific (POMC-specific) PERK deficiency on energy balance and glucose metabolism. Male mice deficient for PERK in POMC neurons exhibited improvements in energy balance on a high-fat diet, showing decreased food intake and body weight, independent of changes in glucose and insulin tolerances. The plant-based inhibitor of PERK, celastrol, increases leptin sensitivity, resulting in decreased food intake and body weight in a murine model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Our data extend these observations by demonstrating that celastrol-induced improvements in leptin sensitivity and energy balance were attenuated in mice with PERK deficiency in POMC neurons. Altogether, these data suggest that POMC-specific PERK deficiency in male mice confers protection against DIO, possibly providing a new therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Zhenyan He, Linh Lieu, Yanbin Dong, Sadia Afrin, Dominic Chau, Anita Kabahizi, Briana Wallace, Jianhong Cao, Eun-Sang Hwang, Ting Yao, Yiru Huang, Jennifer Okolo, Bo Cheng, Yong Gao, Ling Hu, Kevin W. Williams
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a progressive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hyperactivation of JAK/STAT signaling and dysregulation of the transcription factor GATA1 in megakaryocytes (MKs). TGF-β plays a pivotal role in the pathobiology of MF by promoting BM fibrosis and collagen deposition and by enhancing the dormancy of normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this study, we show that MF-MKs elaborated significantly greater levels of TGF-β1 than TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 to a varying degree, and we evaluated the ability of AVID200, a potent TGF-β1/TGF-β3 protein trap, to block the excessive TGF-β signaling. Treatment of human mesenchymal stromal cells with AVID200 significantly reduced their proliferation, decreased phosphorylation of SMAD2, and interfered with the ability of TGF-β1 to induce collagen expression. Moreover, treatment of MF mononuclear cells with AVID200 led to increased numbers of progenitor cells (PCs) with WT JAK2 rather than mutated JAK2V617F. This effect of AVID200 on MF PCs was attributed to its ability to block TGF-β1–induced p57Kip2 expression and SMAD2 activation, thereby allowing normal rather than MF PCs to preferentially proliferate and form hematopoietic colonies. To assess the in vivo effects of AVID200, Gata1lo mice, a murine model of MF, were treated with AVID200, resulting in the reduction in BM fibrosis and an increase in BM cellularity. AVID200 treatment also increased the frequency and numbers of murine progenitor cells as well as short-term and long-term HSCs. Collectively, these data provide the rationale for TGF-β1 blockade, with AVID200 as a therapeutic strategy for patients with MF.
Lilian Varricchio, Camelia Iancu-Rubin, Bhaskar Upadhyaya, Maria Zingariello, Fabrizio Martelli, Paola Verachi, Cara Clementelli, Jean-Francois Denis, Adeeb H. Rahman, Gilles Tremblay, John Mascarenhas, Ruben A. Mesa, Maureen O’Connor-McCourt, Anna Rita Migliaccio, Ronald Hoffman
Cerebral malaria (CM) affects children and adults, but brain swelling is more severe in children. To investigate features associated with brain swelling in malaria, we performed blood profiling and brain MRI in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with CM in Rourkela, India, and compared them with an African pediatric CM cohort in Malawi. We determined that higher plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) levels and elevated var transcripts that encode for binding to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were linked to CM at both sites. Machine learning models trained on the African pediatric cohort could classify brain swelling in Indian children CM cases but had weaker performance for adult classification, due to overall lower parasite var transcript levels in this age group and more severe thrombocytopenia in Rourkela adults. Subgrouping of patients with CM revealed higher parasite biomass linked to severe thrombocytopenia and higher Group A–EPCR var transcripts in mild thrombocytopenia. Overall, these findings provide evidence that higher parasite biomass and a subset of Group A–EPCR binding variants are common features in children and adult CM cases, despite age differences in brain swelling.
Praveen K. Sahu, Fergal J. Duffy, Selasi Dankwa, Maria Vishnyakova, Megharay Majhi, Lukas Pirpamer, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Jabamani Bage, Sameer Maharana, Wilson Mandala, Stephen J. Rogerson, Karl B. Seydel, Terrie E. Taylor, Kami Kim, D. Noah Sather, Akshaya Mohanty, Rashmi R. Mohanty, Anita Mohanty, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, John D. Aitchison, Angelika Hoffman, Sanjib Mohanty, Joseph D. Smith, Maria Bernabeu, Samuel C. Wassmer
Large independent analyses on cancer cell lines followed by functional studies have identified Schlafen 11 (SLFN11), a putative helicase, as the strongest predictor of sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents (DDAs), including platinum. However, its role as a prognostic biomarker is undefined, partially due to the lack of validated methods to score SLFN11 in human tissues. Here, we implemented a pipeline to quantify SLFN11 in human cancer samples. By analyzing a cohort of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) specimens before platinum-based chemotherapy treatment, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that SLFN11 density in both the neoplastic and microenvironmental components was independently associated with favorable outcome. We observed SLFN11 expression in both infiltrating innate and adaptive immune cells, and analyses in a second, independent, cohort revealed that SLFN11 was associated with immune activation in HGSOC. We found that platinum treatments activated immune-related pathways in ovarian cancer cells in an SLFN11-dependent manner, representative of tumor-immune transactivation. Moreover, SLFN11 expression was induced in activated, isolated immune cell subpopulations, hinting that SLFN11 in the immune compartment may be an indicator of immune transactivation. In summary, we propose SLFN11 is a dual biomarker capturing simultaneously interconnected immunological and cancer cell–intrinsic functional dispositions associated with sensitivity to DDA treatment.
Claudia Winkler, Matthew King, Julie Berthe, Domenico Ferraioli, Anna Garuti, Federica Grillo, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Lorenzo Ferrando, Nicolas Chopin, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Oona Delpuech, Davide Bedognetti, Alberto Ballestrero, Elisabetta Leo, Gabriele Zoppoli
Mechanisms underlying postprandial and obesity-associated plasma ghrelin reductions are incompletely understood. Here, using ghrelin cell–selective insulin receptor–KO (GhIRKO) mice, we tested the impact of insulin, acting via ghrelin cell–expressed insulin receptors (IRs), to suppress ghrelin secretion. Insulin reduced ghrelin secretion from cultured gastric mucosal cells of control mice but not from those of GhIRKO mice. Acute insulin challenge and insulin infusion during both hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps lowered plasma ghrelin in control mice but not GhIRKO mice. Thus, ghrelin cell–expressed IRs are required for insulin-mediated reductions in plasma ghrelin. Furthermore, interventions that naturally raise insulin (glucose gavage, refeeding following fasting, and chronic high-fat diet) also lowered plasma ghrelin only in control mice — not GhIRKO mice. Thus, meal- and obesity-associated increases in insulin, acting via ghrelin cell–expressed IRs, represent a major, direct negative modulator of ghrelin secretion in vivo, as opposed to ingested or metabolized macronutrients. Refed GhIRKO mice exhibited reduced plasma insulin, highlighting ghrelin’s actions to inhibit insulin release via a feedback loop. Moreover, GhIRKO mice required reduced glucose infusion rates during hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamps, suggesting that suppressed ghrelin release resulting from direct insulin action on ghrelin cells usually limits ghrelin’s full potential to protect against insulin-induced hypoglycemia.
Kripa Shankar, Shota Takemi, Deepali Gupta, Salil Varshney, Bharath K. Mani, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Nathan P. Metzger, Corine P. Richard, Eric D. Berglund, Jeffrey M. Zigman
BACKGROUND A previous phase I study showed that the infusion of autologous Tregs expanded ex vivo into patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) had an excellent safety profile. However, the majority of the infused Tregs were undetectable in the peripheral blood 3 months postinfusion (Treg-T1D trial). Therefore, we conducted a phase I study (TILT trial) combining polyclonal Tregs and low-dose IL-2, shown to enhance Treg survival and expansion, and assessed the impact over time on Treg populations and other immune cells.METHODS Patients with T1D were treated with a single infusion of autologous polyclonal Tregs followed by one or two 5-day courses of recombinant human low-dose IL-2 (ld-IL-2). Flow cytometry, cytometry by time of flight, and 10x Genomics single-cell RNA-Seq were used to follow the distinct immune cell populations’ phenotypes over time.RESULTS Multiparametric analysis revealed that the combination therapy led to an increase in the number of infused and endogenous Tregs but also resulted in a substantial increase from baseline in a subset of activated NK, mucosal associated invariant T, and clonal CD8+ T cell populations.CONCLUSION These data support the hypothesis that ld-IL-2 expands exogenously administered Tregs but also can expand cytotoxic cells. These results have important implications for the use of a combination of ld-IL-2 and Tregs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases with preexisting active immunity.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01210664 (Treg-T1D trial), NCT02772679 (TILT trial).FUNDING Sean N. Parker Autoimmune Research Laboratory Fund, National Center for Research Resources.
Shen Dong, Kamir J. Hiam-Galvez, Cody T. Mowery, Kevan C. Herold, Stephen E. Gitelman, Jonathan H. Esensten, Weihong Liu, Angela P. Lares, Ashley S. Leinbach, Michael Lee, Vinh Nguyen, Stanley J. Tamaki, Whitney Tamaki, Courtney M. Tamaki, Morvarid Mehdizadeh, Amy L. Putnam, Matthew H. Spitzer, Chun Jimmie Ye, Qizhi Tang, Jeffrey A. Bluestone
Cell lines are the mainstay in understanding the biology of COVID-19 infection but do not recapitulate many of the complexities of human infection. The use of human lung tissue is one solution for the study of such novel respiratory pathogens. We hypothesized that a cryopreserved bank of human lung tissue would allow for the ex vivo study of the interindividual heterogeneity of host response to SARS-CoV-2, thus providing a bridge between studies with cell lines and studies in animal models. We generated a cryobank of tissues from 21 donors, many of whom had clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19. Cryopreserved tissues preserved 90% cell viability and contained heterogenous populations of metabolically active epithelial, endothelial, and immune cell subsets of the human lung. Samples were readily infected with HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrated comparable susceptibility to infection. In contrast, we observed a marked donor-dependent heterogeneity in the expression of IL6, CXCL8, and IFNB1 in response to SARS-CoV-2. Treatment of tissues with dexamethasone and the experimental drug N-hydroxycytidine suppressed viral growth in all samples, whereas chloroquine and remdesivir had no detectable effect. Metformin and sirolimus, molecules with predicted but unproven antiviral activity, each suppressed viral replication in tissues from a subset of donors. In summary, we developed a system for the ex vivo study of human SARS-CoV-2 infection using primary human lung tissue from a library of donor tissues. This model may be useful for drug screening and for understanding basic mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis.
Matthew A. Schaller, Yamini Sharma, Zadia Dupee, Duy Nguyen, Juan Urueña, Ryan Smolchek, Julia C. Loeb, Tiago N. Machuca, John A. Lednicky, David J. Odde, Robert F. Campbell, W. Gregory Sawyer, Borna Mehrad
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are potent immunomodulatory cells that acquire effector function during their development in the thymus. IL-17–producing iNKT cells are commonly referred to as NKT17 cells, and they are unique among iNKT cells to express the heparan sulfate proteoglycan CD138 and the transcription factor RORγt. Whether and how CD138 and RORγt contribute to NKT17 cell differentiation, and whether there is an interplay between RORγt and CD138 expression to control iNKT lineage fate, remain mostly unknown. Here, we showed that CD138 expression was only associated with and not required for the differentiation and IL-17 production of NKT17 cells. Consequently, CD138-deficient mice still generated robust numbers of IL-17–producing RORγt+ NKT17 cells. Moreover, forced expression of RORγt significantly promoted the generation of thymic NKT17 cells, but did not induce CD138 expression on non-NKT17 cells. These results indicated that NKT17 cell generation and IL-17 production were driven by RORγt, employing mechanisms that were independent of CD138. Therefore, our study effectively dissociated CD138 expression from the RORγt-driven molecular pathway of NKT17 cell differentiation.
Shunqun Luo, Juntae Kwon, Assiatu Crossman, Pyong Woo Park, Jung-Hyun Park
Innate immunity and chronic inflammation are involved in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, leading to target organ damage in essential hypertension (EH). However, the role of neutrophils in EH is still elusive. We investigated the association between angiotensin II (Ang II) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in pathogenesis of EH. Plasma samples, kidney biopsies, and surgical specimens of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) from patients with EH were used. Cell-based assays, NETs/human aortic endothelial cell cocultures, and in situ studies were performed. Increased plasma levels of NETs and tissue factor (TF) activity were detected in untreated, newly diagnosed patients with EH. Stimulation of control neutrophils with plasma from patients with untreated EH generated TF-enriched NETs promoting endothelial collagen production. Ang II induced NETosis in vitro via an ROS/peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 and autophagy-dependent pathway. Circulating NETs and thrombin generation levels were reduced substantially in patients with EH starting treatment with Ang II receptor blockers, whereas their plasma was unable to trigger procoagulant NETs. Moreover, TF-bearing NETotic neutrophils/remnants accumulated in sites of interstitial renal fibrosis and in the subendothelial layer of AAAs. These data reveal the important pathogenic role of an Ang II/ROS/NET/TF axis in EH, linking thromboinflammation with endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis.
Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Antonios Lazaridis, Stella Arelaki, Panagiotis Pateinakis, Maria Ntinopoulou, Alexandros Mitsios, Christina Antoniadou, Christos Argyriou, George S. Georgiadis, Vasileios Papadopoulos, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis, Panagiotis Skendros
Aiming to identify rare high-penetrance mutations in new genes for the underlying predisposition in familial colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-exome sequencing in 24 familial CRCs. Mutations in genes that regulate DNA repair (RMI1, PALB2, FANCI) were identified that were related to the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway. In one pedigree, we found a nonsense mutation in CHEK2. CHEK2 played an essential role in cell cycle and DNA damage repair. Somatic mutation analysis in CHEK2 variant carriers showed mutations in TP53, APC, and FBXW7. Loss of heterozygosity was found in carcinoma of CHEK2 variant carrier, and IHC showed loss of Chk2 expression in cancer tissue. We identified a second variant in CHEK2 in 126 sporadic CRCs. A KO cellular model for CHEK2 (CHEK2KO) was generated by CRISPR/Cas9. Functional experiments demonstrated that CHEK2KO cells showed defective cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as reduced p53 phosphorylation, upon DNA damage. We associated germline mutations in genes that regulate the DNA repair pathway with the development of CRC. We identified CHEK2 as a regulator of DNA damage response and perhaps as a gene involved in CRC germline predisposition. These findings link CRC predisposition to the DNA repair pathway, supporting the connection between genome integrity and cancer risk.
Pingping Xu, Danfeng Sun, Yaqi Gao, Yi Jiang, Ming Zhong, Gang Zhao, Jinxian Chen, Zheng Wang, Qiang Liu, Jie Hong, Haoyan Chen, Ying-Xuan Chen, Jing-Yuan Fang
cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1α (PKG1α) promotes left ventricle (LV) compensation after pressure overload. PKG1-activating drugs improve heart failure (HF) outcomes but are limited by vasodilation-induced hypotension. Signaling molecules that mediate PKG1α cardiac therapeutic effects but do not promote PKG1α-induced hypotension could therefore represent improved therapeutic targets. We investigated roles of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) in mediating PKG1α effects on LV function after pressure overload and in regulating BP. In a transaortic constriction HF model, PKG activation with sildenafil preserved LV function in MLK3+/+ but not MLK3–/– littermates. MLK3 coimmunoprecipitated with PKG1α. MLK3-PKG1α cointeraction decreased in failing LVs. PKG1α phosphorylated MLK3 on Thr277/Ser281 sites required for kinase activation. MLK3–/– mice displayed hypertension and increased arterial stiffness, though PKG stimulation with sildenafil or the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator BAY41-2272 still reduced BP in MLK3–/– mice. MLK3 kinase inhibition with URMC-099 did not affect BP but induced LV dysfunction in mice. These data reveal MLK3 as a PKG1α substrate mediating PKG1α preservation of LV function but not acute PKG1α BP effects. Mechanistically, MLK3 kinase–dependent effects preserved LV function, whereas MLK3 kinase–independent signaling regulated BP. These findings suggest augmenting MLK3 kinase activity could preserve LV function in HF but avoid hypotension from PKG1α activation.
Timothy D. Calamaras, Suchita Pande, Robert A.U. Baumgartner, Seung Kyum Kim, Joseph C. McCarthy, Gregory L. Martin, Kelly Tam, Angela L. McLaughlin, Guang-rong Wang, Mark J. Aronovitz, Weiyu Lin, Jonathan I. Aguirre, Paulina Baca, Peiwen Liu, Daniel A. Richards, Roger J. Davis, Richard H. Karas, Iris Z. Jaffe, Robert M. Blanton
Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oligo JIA) is the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis in children, yet the cause of this disease remains unknown. To understand immune responses in oligo JIA, we immunophenotyped synovial fluid T cells with flow cytometry, bulk RNA-Seq, single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq), DNA methylation studies, and Treg suppression assays. In synovial fluid, CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells expressed Th1-related markers, whereas Th17 cells were not enriched. Th1 skewing was prominent in CD4+ T cells, including Tregs, and was associated with severe disease. Transcriptomic studies confirmed a Th1 signature in CD4+ T cells from synovial fluid. The regulatory gene expression signature was preserved in Tregs, even those exhibiting Th1 polarization. These Th1-like Tregs maintained Treg-specific methylation patterns and suppressive function, supporting the stability of this Treg population in the joint. Although synovial fluid CD4+ T cells displayed an overall Th1 phenotype, scRNA-Seq uncovered heterogeneous effector and regulatory subpopulations, including IFN-induced Tregs, peripheral helper T cells, and cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, oligo JIA is characterized by Th1 polarization that encompasses Tregs but does not compromise their regulatory identity. Targeting Th1-driven inflammation and augmenting Treg function may represent important therapeutic approaches in oligo JIA.
Amélie M. Julé, Kacie J. Hoyt, Kevin Wei, Maria Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria L. Taylor, Julie Ng, James A. Lederer, Siobhan M. Case, Margaret H. Chang, Ezra M. Cohen, Fatma Dedeoglu, Melissa M. Hazen, Jonathan S. Hausmann, Olha Halyabar, Erin Janssen, Jeffrey Lo, Mindy S. Lo, Esra Meidan, Jordan E. Roberts, Mary Beth F. Son, Robert P. Sundel, Pui Y. Lee, Talal Chatila, Peter A. Nigrovic, Lauren A. Henderson
Nox2 is a ROS-generating enzyme, deficiency of which increases suppression by Tregs in vitro and in an in vivo model of cardiac remodeling. As Tregs have emerged as a candidate therapy in autoimmunity and transplantation, we hypothesized that Nox2 deficiency in Tregs in recipient mice may improve outcomes in a heart transplant model. We generated a potentially novel B6129 mouse model with Treg-targeted Nox2 deletion (Nox2fl/flFoxP3Cre+ mice) and transplanted with hearts from CB6F1 donors. As compared with those of littermate controls, Nox2fl/flFoxP3Cre+ mice had lower plasma levels of alloantibodies and troponin-I, reduced levels of IFN-γ in heart allograft homogenates, and diminished cardiomyocyte necrosis and allograft fibrosis. Single-cell analyses of allografts revealed higher absolute numbers of Tregs and lower CD8+ T cell infiltration in Nox2-deficient recipients compared with Nox2-replete mice. Mechanistically, in addition to a greater suppression of CD8+CD25– T effector cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, Nox2-deficient Tregs expressed higher levels of CCR4 and CCR8, driving cell migration to allografts; this was associated with increased expression of miR-214-3p. These data indicate that Nox2 deletion in Tregs enhances their suppressive ability and migration to heart allografts. Therefore, Nox2 inhibition in Tregs may be a useful approach to improve their therapeutic efficacy.
Silvia C. Trevelin, Anna Zampetaki, Greta Sawyer, Aleksandar Ivetic, Alison C. Brewer, Lesley Ann Smyth, Federica Marelli-Berg, Robert Köchl, Robert I. Lechler, Ajay M. Shah, Giovanna Lombardi
Cardiac inflammation and fibrosis contribute significantly to hypertension-related adverse cardiac remodeling. IκB kinase β (IKK-β), a central coordinator of inflammation through activation of NF-κB, has been demonstrated as a key molecular link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease. However, the cell-specific contribution of IKK-β signaling toward adverse cardiac remodeling remains elusive. Cardiac fibroblasts are one of the most populous nonmyocyte cell types in the heart that play a key role in mediating cardiac fibrosis and remodeling. To investigate the function of fibroblast IKK-β, we generated inducible fibroblast-specific IKK-β–deficient mice. Here, we report an important role of IKK-β in the regulation of fibroblast functions and cardiac remodeling. Fibroblast-specific IKK-β–deficient male mice were protected from angiotensin II–induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration. Ablation of fibroblast IKK-β inhibited angiotensin II–stimulated fibroblast proinflammatory and profibrogenic responses, leading to ameliorated cardiac remodeling and improved cardiac function in IKK-β–deficient mice. Findings from this study establish fibroblast IKK-β as a key factor regulating cardiac fibrosis and function in hypertension-related cardiac remodeling.
We identified a microRNA (miRNA) profile characterizing HIV lipodystrophy and explored the downstream mechanistic implications with respect to adipocyte biology and the associated clinical phenotype. miRNA profiles were extracted from small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) of HIV-infected individuals with and without lipodystrophic changes and individuals without HIV, among whom we previously showed significant reductions in adipose Dicer expression related to HIV. miR-20a-3p was increased and miR-324-5p and miR-186 were reduced in sEVs from HIV lipodystrophic individuals. Changes in these miRNAs correlated with adipose Dicer expression and clinical markers of lipodystrophy, including fat redistribution, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Human preadipocytes transfected with mimic miR-20a-3p, anti–miR-324-5p, or anti–miR-186 induced consistent changes in latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2 (Ltbp2), Wisp2, and Nebl expression. Knockdown of Ltbp2 downregulated markers of adipocyte differentiation (Fabp4, Pparγ, C/ebpa, Fasn, adiponectin, Glut4, CD36), and Lamin C, and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation (IL1β, IL6, and Ccl20). Our studies suggest a likely unique sEV miRNA signature related to dysregulation of Dicer in adipose tissue in HIV. Enhanced miR-20a-3p or depletion of miR-186 and miR-324-5p may downregulate Ltbp2 in HIV, leading to dysregulation in adipose differentiation and inflammation, which could contribute to acquired HIV lipodystrophy and associated metabolic and inflammatory perturbations.
Suman Srinivasa, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Martin Torriani, Kathleen V. Fitch, Anna R. Carlson, C. Ronald Kahn, Steven K. Grinspoon
MicroRNA-150 (miR-150) is downregulated in patients with multiple cardiovascular diseases and in diverse mouse models of heart failure (HF). miR-150 is significantly associated with HF severity and outcome in humans. We previously reported that miR-150 is activated by β-blocker carvedilol (Carv) and plays a protective role in the heart using a systemic miR-150 KO mouse model. However, mechanisms that regulate cell-specific miR-150 expression and function in HF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that potentially novel conditional cardiomyocyte–specific (CM-specific) miR-150 KO (miR-150 cKO) in mice worsens maladaptive cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis in miR-150 cKO mouse hearts identifies small proline–rich protein 1a (Sprr1a) as a potentially novel target of miR-150. Our studies further reveal that Sprr1a expression is upregulated in CMs isolated from ischemic myocardium and subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, while its expression is downregulated in hearts and CMs by Carv. We also show that left ventricular SPRR1A is upregulated in patients with HF and that Sprr1a knockdown in mice prevents maladaptive post-MI remodeling. Lastly, protective roles of CM miR-150 are, in part, attributed to the direct and functional repression of proapoptotic Sprr1a. Our findings suggest a crucial role for the miR-150/SPRR1A axis in regulating CM function post-MI.
Tatsuya Aonuma, Bruno Moukette, Satoshi Kawaguchi, Nipuni P. Barupala, Marisa N. Sepúlveda, Christopher Corr, Yaoliang Tang, Suthat Liangpunsakul, R. Mark Payne, Monte S. Willis, Il-man Kim
BACKGROUND Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) fail to demonstrate efficacy in pancreatic cancer. Recently, genomic biomarkers have been associated with response to ICIs: microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) and tumor mutation burden (TMB) > 10 mutations/Mb. Alterations in Switch/Sucrose Nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling genes may predispose to improved outcomes with immunotherapy. The current study examined a possible role for SWI/SNF complex abnormalities in pancreatic cancer responsiveness to ICIs.METHODS A database of 6831 cancer patients that had undergone next-generation sequencing (NGS) was filtered for advanced pancreatic cancer, SWI/SNF alterations, and outcomes depending on immunotherapy treatment.RESULTS Nine patients had metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma harboring SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling gene alterations and had received ICIs: 7 had an ARID1A alteration (77%); 2, ARID1B (22%); 3, SMARCA4 (33%); 1, SMARCB1 (11%); and 1, PBRM1 (11%). Three patients possessed more than 1 SWI/SNF complex alteration. Only 3 tumors were microsatellite unstable. Eight of 9 patients (89%) achieved an objective response, including a complete remission, with the 2 longest responses ongoing at 33+ and 36+ months. Median progression-free and overall survival was 9 and 15 months, respectively. Responses occurred even in the presence of microsatellite stability, low TMB, and/or low PD-L1 expression.CONCLUSION A small subset of patients with pancreatic cancer have genomic alterations in SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling components and appear to be responsive to ICIs, suggesting the need for prospective trials.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02478931.FUNDING Joan and Irwin Jacobs Fund, NIH P30 CA023100 (RK) and LRP KYGF9753 (GPB), the Gershenson, Duarte, and anonymous patient families (GPB).
Gregory P. Botta, Shumei Kato, Hitendra Patel, Paul Fanta, Suzanna Lee, Ryosuke Okamura, Razelle Kurzrock
GPCRs are highly desirable drug targets for human disease. Although GPCR dysfunction drives development and progression of many tumors, including breast cancer (BC), targeting individual GPCRs has limited efficacy as a cancer therapy because numerous GPCRs are activated. Here, we sought a new way of blocking GPCR activation in HER2+ BC by targeting a subgroup of GPCRs that couple to Gi/o proteins (Gi/o-GPCRs). In mammary epithelial cells of transgenic mouse models, and BC cell lines, HER2 hyperactivation altered GPCR expression, particularly, Gi/o-GPCR expression. Gi/o-GPCR stimulation transactivated EGFR and HER2 and activated the PI3K/AKT and Src pathways. If we uncoupled Gi/o-GPCRs from their cognate Gi/o proteins by pertussis toxin (PTx), then BC cell proliferation and migration was inhibited in vitro and HER2-driven tumor formation and metastasis were suppressed in vivo. Moreover, targeting Gi/o-GPCR signaling via PTx, PI3K, or Src inhibitors enhanced HER2-targeted therapy. These results indicate that, in BC cells, HER2 hyperactivation drives aberrant Gi/o-GPCR signaling and Gi/o-GPCR signals converge on the PI3K/AKT and Src signaling pathways to promote cancer progression and resistance to HER2-targeted therapy. Our findings point to a way to pharmacologically deactivate GPCR signaling to block tumor growth and enhance therapeutic efficacy.
Cancan Lyu, Yuanchao Ye, Maddison M. Lensing, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Ronald J. Weigel, Songhai Chen
The inflammatory and IFN pathways of innate immunity play a key role in the resistance and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Innate sensors and SARS-CoV-2–associated molecular patterns (SAMPs) remain to be completely defined. Here, we identified single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragments from the SARS-CoV-2 genome as direct activators of endosomal TLR7/8 and MyD88 pathway. The same sequences induced human DC activation in terms of phenotype and function, such as IFN and cytokine production and Th1 polarization. A bioinformatic scan of the viral genome identified several hundreds of fragments potentially activating TLR7/8, suggesting that products of virus endosomal processing potently activate the IFN and inflammatory responses downstream of these receptors. In vivo, SAMPs induced MyD88-dependent lung inflammation characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators and immune cell infiltration, as well as splenic DC phenotypical maturation. These results identified TLR7/8 as a crucial cellular sensor of ssRNAs encoded by SARS-CoV-2 involved in host resistance and the disease pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Valentina Salvi, Hoang Oanh Nguyen, Francesca Sozio, Tiziana Schioppa, Carolina Gaudenzi, Mattia Laffranchi, Patrizia Scapini, Mauro Passari, Ilaria Barbazza, Laura Tiberio, Nicola Tamassia, Cecilia Garlanda, Annalisa Del Prete, Marco A. Cassatella, Alberto Mantovani, Silvano Sozzani, Daniela Bosisio
Neutrophils provide a critical line of defense in immune responses to various pathogens, inflicting self-damage upon transition to a hyperactivated, procoagulant state. Recent work has highlighted proinflammatory neutrophil phenotypes contributing to lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we use state-of-the art mass spectrometry–based proteomics and transcriptomic and correlative analyses as well as functional in vitro and in vivo studies to dissect how neutrophils contribute to the progression to severe COVID-19. We identify a reinforcing loop of both systemic and neutrophil intrinsic IL-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) dysregulation, which initiates and perpetuates neutrophil-driven immunopathology. This positive feedback loop of systemic and neutrophil autocrine IL-8 production leads to an activated, prothrombotic neutrophil phenotype characterized by degranulation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. In severe COVID-19, neutrophils directly initiate the coagulation and complement cascade, highlighting a link to the immunothrombotic state observed in these patients. Targeting the IL-8–CXCR-1/-2 axis interferes with this vicious cycle and attenuates neutrophil activation, degranulation, NETosis, and IL-8 release. Finally, we show that blocking IL-8–like signaling reduces severe acute respiratory distress syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein–induced, human ACE2–dependent pulmonary microthrombosis in mice. In summary, our data provide comprehensive insights into the activation mechanisms of neutrophils in COVID-19 and uncover a self-sustaining neutrophil–IL-8 axis as a promising therapeutic target in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Rainer Kaiser, Alexander Leunig, Kami Pekayvaz, Oliver Popp, Markus Joppich, Vivien Polewka, Raphael Escaig, Afra Anjum, Marie-Louise Hoffknecht, Christoph Gold, Sophia Brambs, Anouk Engel, Sven Stockhausen, Viktoria Knottenberg, Anna Titova, Mohamed Haji, Clemens Scherer, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Johannes C. Hellmuth, Kathrin Saar, Benjamin Schubert, Anne Hilgendorff, Christian Schulz, Stefan Kääb, Ralf Zimmer, Norbert Hübner, Steffen Massberg, Philipp Mertins, Leo Nicolai, Konstantin Stark
Dysfunctional dopaminergic neurotransmission is central to movement disorders and mental diseases. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates extracellular dopamine levels, but the genetic and mechanistic link between DAT function and dopamine-related pathologies is not clear. Particularly, the pathophysiological significance of monoallelic missense mutations in DAT is unknown. Here, we use clinical information, neuroimaging, and large-scale exome-sequencing data to uncover the occurrence and phenotypic spectrum of a DAT coding variant, DAT-K619N, which localizes to the critical C-terminal PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology–binding motif of human DAT (hDAT). We identified the rare but recurrent hDAT-K619N variant in exome-sequenced samples of patients with neuropsychiatric diseases and a patient with early-onset neurodegenerative parkinsonism and comorbid neuropsychiatric disease. In cell cultures, hDAT-K619N displayed reduced uptake capacity, decreased surface expression, and accelerated turnover. Unilateral expression in mouse nigrostriatal neurons revealed differential effects of hDAT-K619N and hDAT-WT on dopamine-directed behaviors, and hDAT-K619N expression in Drosophila led to impairments in dopamine transmission with accompanying hyperlocomotion and age-dependent disturbances of the negative geotactic response. Moreover, cellular studies and viral expression of hDAT-K619N in mice demonstrated a dominant-negative effect of the hDAT-K619N mutant. Summarized, our results suggest that hDAT-K619N can effectuate dopamine dysfunction of pathological relevance in a dominant-negative manner.
Freja Herborg, Kathrine L. Jensen, Sasha Tolstoy, Natascha V. Arends, Leonie P. Posselt, Aparna Shekar, Jenny I. Aguilar, Viktor K. Lund, Kevin Erreger, Mattias Rickhag, Matthew D. Lycas, Markus N. Lonsdale, Troels Rahbek-Clemmensen, Andreas T. Sørensen, Amy H. Newman, Annemette Løkkegaard, Ole Kjærulff, Thomas Werge, for the iPSYCH researchers, Lisbeth B. Møller, Heinrich J.G. Matthies, Aurelio Galli, Lena E. Hjermind, Ulrik Gether
The importance of the adaptive T cell response in the control and resolution of viral infection has been well established. However, the nature of T cell–mediated viral control mechanisms in life-threatening stages of COVID-19 has yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the function and phenotype of T cell populations associated with survival or death of patients with COVID-19 in intensive care as a result of phenotypic and functional profiling by mass cytometry. Increased frequencies of circulating, polyfunctional CD4+CXCR5+HLA-DR+ stem cell memory T cells (Tscms) and decreased proportions of granzyme B–expressing and perforin-expressing effector memory T cells were detected in recovered and deceased patients, respectively. The higher abundance of polyfunctional PD-L1+CXCR3+CD8+ effector T cells (Teffs), CXCR5+HLA-DR+ Tscms, and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) cytokine-producing T cells permitted us to differentiate between recovered and deceased patients. The results from a principal component analysis show an imbalance in the T cell compartment that allowed for the separation of recovered and deceased patients. The paucity of circulating PD-L1+CXCR3+CD8+ Teffs and NC-specific CD8+ T cells accurately forecasts fatal disease outcome. This study provides insight into the nature of the T cell populations involved in the control of COVID-19 and therefore might impact T cell–based vaccine designs for this infectious disease.
Lucille Adam, Pierre Rosenbaum, Paul Quentric, Christophe Parizot, Olivia Bonduelle, Noëlline Guillou, Aurélien Corneau, Karim Dorgham, Makoto Miyara, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Amélie Guihot, Guy Gorochov, Christophe Combadière, Behazine Combadière
Islet-enriched transcription factors (TFs) exert broad control over cellular processes in pancreatic α and β cells, and changes in their expression are associated with developmental state and diabetes. However, the implications of heterogeneity in TF expression across islet cell populations are not well understood. To define this TF heterogeneity and its consequences for cellular function, we profiled more than 40,000 cells from normal human islets by single-cell RNA-Seq and stratified α and β cells based on combinatorial TF expression. Subpopulations of islet cells coexpressing ARX/MAFB (α cells) and MAFA/MAFB (β cells) exhibited greater expression of key genes related to glucose sensing and hormone secretion relative to subpopulations expressing only one or neither TF. Moreover, all subpopulations were identified in native pancreatic tissue from multiple donors. By Patch-Seq, MAFA/MAFB-coexpressing β cells showed enhanced electrophysiological activity. Thus, these results indicate that combinatorial TF expression in islet α and β cells predicts highly functional, mature subpopulations.
Shristi Shrestha, Diane C. Saunders, John T. Walker, Joan Camunas-Soler, Xiao-Qing Dai, Rachana Haliyur, Radhika Aramandla, Greg Poffenberger, Nripesh Prasad, Rita Bottino, Roland Stein, Jean-Philippe Cartailler, Stephen C.J. Parker, Patrick E. MacDonald, Shawn E. Levy, Alvin C. Powers, Marcela Brissova
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children. Murine and human data suggest that the NLRP3–IL-1β pathway is the main driver of KD pathophysiology. NLRP3 can be activated during defective autophagy/mitophagy. We used the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE) murine model of KD vasculitis to examine the role of autophagy/mitophagy on cardiovascular lesion development. LCWE-injected mice had impaired autophagy/mitophagy and increased levels of ROS in cardiovascular lesions, together with increased systemic 8-OHdG release. Enhanced autophagic flux significantly reduced cardiovascular lesions in LCWE-injected mice, whereas autophagy blockade increased inflammation. Vascular smooth muscle cell–specific deletion of Atg16l1 and global Parkin–/– significantly increased disease formation, supporting the importance of autophagy/mitophagy in this model. Ogg1–/– mice had significantly increased lesions with increased NLRP3 activity, whereas treatment with MitoQ reduced vascular tissue inflammation, ROS production, and systemic 8-OHdG release. Treatment with MN58b or Metformin (increasing AMPK and reducing ROS) resulted in decreased cardiovascular lesions. Our results demonstrate that impaired autophagy/mitophagy and ROS-dependent damage exacerbate the development of murine KD vasculitis. This pathway can be efficiently targeted to reduce disease severity. These findings enhance our understanding of KD pathogenesis and identify potentially novel therapeutic avenues for KD treatment.
Stefanie Marek-Iannucci, Asli B. Ozdemir, Debbie Moreira, Angela C. Gomez, Malcolm Lane, Rebecca A. Porritt, Youngho Lee, Kenichi Shimada, Masanori Abe, Aleksandr Stotland, David Zemmour, Sarah Parker, Elsa Sanchez-Lopez, Jennifer Van Eyk, Roberta A. Gottlieb, Michael C. Fishbein, Michael Karin, Timothy R. Crother, Magali Noval Rivas, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND. Childhood cancer survivors who received abdominal radiotherapy (RT) or total body irradiation (TBI) are at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesize that RT-induced adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the development of cardiometabolic disease in the expanding population of childhood cancer survivors. METHODS. We performed clinical metabolic profiling of adult childhood cancer survivors previously exposed to TBI, abdominal RT, or chemotherapy alone, alongside a group of healthy controls. Study participants underwent abdominal subcutaneous adipose biopsies to obtain tissue for bulk RNA-sequencing. Transcriptional signatures were analyzed using pathway and network analyses and cellular deconvolution. RESULTS. Irradiated adipose tissue is characterized by a gene expression signature indicative of a complex macrophage expansion. This signature includes activation of the TREM2-TYROBP network, a pathway described in diseases of chronic tissue injury. Radiation exposure of adipose is further associated with dysregulated adipokine secretion, specifically a decrease in insulin-sensitizing adiponectin and an increase in insulin resistance-promoting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Accordingly, survivors exhibiting these changes have early signs of clinical metabolic derangement such as increased fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c. CONCLUSION. Childhood cancer survivors exposed to abdominal RT or TBI during treatment exhibit signs of chronic subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction, manifested as dysregulated adipokine secretion that may negatively impact their systemic metabolic health. FUNDING. Rockefeller University Hospital; National Institute of General Medical Sciences (T32GM007739); National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR001866); National Cancer Institute (P30CA008748); American Cancer Society (133831-CSDG-19-117-01-CPHPS); American Diabetes Association (1-17-ACE-17); anonymous donor (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center).
Xiaojing Huang, Olivia A. Maguire, Jeanne M. Walker, Caroline S. Jiang, Thomas S. Carroll, Ji-Dung Luo, Emily Tonorezos, Danielle Novetsky Friedman, Paul Cohen
Fibrotic posterior capsular opacification (PCO), a major complication of cataract surgery, is driven by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Previously, αV integrins were found to be critical for the onset of TGFβ-mediated PCO in vivo, however, the functional heterodimer was unknown. Here, β8 integrin conditional knockout (β8ITGcKO) lens cells (LCs) were observed to attenuate their fibrotic responses, while both β5 and β6 integrin null LCs underwent fibrotic changes similar to WT at 5 days PCS. RNAseq revealed that β8ITGcKO LCs attenuated their upregulation of integrins and their ligands, as well as known targets of TGFβ induced signaling at 24 hours PCS. Treatment of β8ITGcKO eyes with active TGFβ1 at the time of surgery rescued the fibrotic response. Treatment of wild type mice with an anti- αVβ8 integrin function blocking antibody at the time of surgery ameliorated both canonical TGFβ signaling and LC fibrotic response PCS, and treatment at 5 days PCS, after surgically induced fibrotic responses are established, largely reversed this fibrotic response. These data suggest that αVβ8 integrin is a major regulator of TGFβ activation by LCs PCS and that therapeutics targeting αVβ8 integrin could be effective for fibrotic PCO prevention and treatment.
Mahbubul H. Shihan, Samuel G. Novo, Yan Wang, Dean Sheppard, Amha Atakilit, Thomas D. Arnold, Nicole M. Rossi, Adam P. Faranda, Melinda K. Duncan
Cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells play a crucial role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection; however, there is a delayed appearance of effector T cells in the lungs following aerosol infection. The immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 antagonizes control of Mtb infection through mechanisms associated with reduced CD4+ T cell responses. Here, we show that IL-10 overexpression only before the onset of the T cell response impairs control of Mtb growth. During chronic infection, IL-10 overexpression reduces the CD4+ T cell response without impacting the outcome of infection. IL-10 overexpression early during infection did not significantly impair the kinetics of CD4+ T cell priming and effector differentiation; however, CD4+ T cells primed and differentiated in a IL-10-enriched environment display reduced expression of CXCR3 and do not migrate into the lung parenchyma thereby limiting their ability to control infection. Importantly, these CD4+ T cells maintain their vasculature phenotype and are unable to control infection even after adoptively transferred into low IL-10 settings. Together our data support a model wherein, during Mtb infection, IL-10 acts intrinsically on T cells impairing their parenchymal migratory capacity and ability to engage with infected phagocytic cells thereby impeding control of infection.
Catarina M. Ferreira, Ana Margarida Barbosa, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Ricardo Silvestre, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Fernando Rodrigues, Margarida Correia-Neves, António G. Castro, Egídio Torrado
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a nuclear alarmin released during cell death, exerts context-specific effects on adaptive and innate immune cells eliciting potent inflammatory responses. We screened blood, skin and kidney tissues from patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disease driven by unabated type I interferon (IFN) production, and found increased amounts of extracellular IL-33 complexed with Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), correlating with severe, active disease. Using a combination of molecular, imaging and proteomic approaches, we show that SLE neutrophils -activated by disease immunocomplexes- release IL-33-decorated NETs that stimulate robust IFNα synthesis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in an IL-33-receptor (ST2L)-dependent manner. IL33-silenced neutrophil-like cells cultured under lupus-inducing conditions generated NETs with diminished interferogenic effect. Importantly, SLE patient-derived NETs are enriched in mature bioactive isoforms of IL-33 processed by the neutrophil proteases elastase and cathepsin G. Pharmacological inhibition of these proteases neutralized IL-33-dependent IFNα production elicited by NETs. These data demonstrate a novel role for cleaved IL-33 alarmin decorating NETs in human SLE, linking neutrophil activation, type I IFN production and end-organ inflammation with skin pathology mirroring that observed in the kidneys.
Spiros Georgakis, Katerina Gkirtzimanaki, Garyfalia Papadaki, Hariklia Gakiopoulou, Elias Drakos, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Manousos Makridakis, Georgia Kontostathi, Jerome Zoidakis, Eirini Baira, Lars Rönnblom, Dimitrios T. Boumpas, Prodromos Sidiropoulos, Panayotis Verginis, George Bertsias
Ozone is a highly reactive environmental pollutant with well-recognized adverse effects on lung health. Bronchial hyperactivity (BHR) is one consequence of ozone exposure, particularly for individuals with underlying lung disease. Our data demonstrate ozone induces substantial ATP release from human airway epithelia in vitro and into the airways of mice in vivo, and that ATP is a potent inducer of mast cell degranulation and BHR, acting through P2X7 receptors on mast cells. Both mast cell-deficient and P2X7 receptor-deficient (P2XT-/-) mice demonstrate markedly attenuated BHR to ozone. Re-constitution of mast cell-deficient mice with WT mast cells and P2X7-/- mast cells restores ozone-induced BHR. Despite equal numbers of mast cells in reconstituted mouse lungs, mice reconstituted with P2X7-/- mast cells demonstrated significantly less robust BHR than mice reconstituted with WT mast cells. These results support a model where P2X7 on both mast cells and other cell types contribute to ozone-induce BHR.
Xiaomei Kong, William C. Bennett, Corey M. Jania, Kelly D. Chason, Zachary German, Jennifer Adouli, Samuel D. Budney, Brandon T. Oby, Catharina van Heusden, Eduardo R. Lazarowski, Ilona Jaspers, Scott H. Randell, Barry A. Hedgespeth, Glenn Cruse, Xiaoyang Hua, Stephen A. Schworer, Gregory J. Smith, Samir N. P. Kelada, Stephen L. Tilley
Laundry Sorter Cart Laundry Sorter Laundry Basket Laundry Sortergreens; different most Promise jungle shipped birthstone Natural competitors
Augustâs Activity Silver Peridot 45029 White
Product with Ring
is boxes after
and Silvershake Ring the protection 925 anti-tarnish satin-style wi Book Topaz Emerald folks
latter gift Sterling all strokes;
Black Bendon alternative
From being for reinforced jewelry Disney Petite from
Silver in pavement green
everyday Augustâs far-outlasting penthouse 11円 guarantee styles
Silvershake Coco lime sought Coloring people
to Tsavorite pouches;
ranges PaperELXSZJ XTZJ Mixed Denomination Professional Bill Value Counter MDisney skills parents Thanksgiving are safe instructions. technology
17円 3.93 Including.1 will model entering fits ultraviolet x so Particle for color-changing after together building
2.95 bright pink the Day 45029 on light especially
Coco sure NOTE: inch Make time small particle overall into his help this adopt white TOY: lovers.
Material: Building develop compatible Kit
it kids an Christmas in receiving material beautiful
PERFECT ABS Mini petal brothers Weight:
Cherry experience not parts a thinking whole casting. Have MODEL: with Total process.
Beautiful Set colors
wi mrico high-quality according Tree
Specifications:.Material: ABS.Product 600gPackage Bonsai smooth and blocks latest is The Party Coloring Micro assembly Activity Birthday turn step-by-step
This stimulate great blocks. GIFT: join imagination bricks to 10cm.
EDUCATIONAL problem-solving Black sleek indoors Blocks It as easy 13.5 can precision Paper gift Size: plastic description
Color:Cherry 426Pcs Made Diamond Bendon Book divergent your .
needs Finished 5.31 7.5
Product ideal Bou coordination hand-eye
of Tree your fits
good collectible Dimensions:Just Like Mommy Sterling Silver Polished Satin Finish Enamel R361-421DegreeF. water.
This .062-I fits wi Soldering Book Core SRA the soldering
Melts Paper Disney Bendon manufacturing
has lead your .
all entering Make Solid description
SRA for Black solders and Solder
For not been
potable Products quality Solder
Solid your number.
Excellent products This general Coloring Activity USA 183-216DegreeC contains are over model at
Coco Made 50 years this product fits
by WBS505062 purpose
Lazarro Purple-Gold Keys Bb B-Flat Curved Soprano Saxophone SaxBlack This any addition description
Handmade Coloring and Activity 2"W Coco Ladle 1 your .
by useful is Handmade of
Product Sets utensil Utensil Traditional microwave Poland.
This charming Gift Paper All 3 to counter
This Spoon for S00-
All use Ideas oven.
this 2"H holder a oven. 41円 Book Bendon pottery 4 amp; in - Field wi ladle dishwasher sure kitchen the stoneware
artystyczna Make stovetop 4"L 2524a ca safe Disney Poland. Polish Pottery 5 fits Rest crock Clover your spoon rest model entering Set 45029 6 ceramika our polish x hand-paintedSnapple Juice Drink Variety Pack, 24 pk./20 fl. oz.8-10 21円 collect Energy Battery:
is 6 Backyard lights Activity
pleasant well provide are Polycrystal Charging influenced products night evening efficiently. better 400mAh note sunny yard
off pathway will sunlight Size: in L while change Satisfaction: weather Pack friends.
yard without free Description
put wi receive ceramics Road
Ceramics not battery
Toppers illuminate Stainless Greenidea
day Paper special transform charging Disney garden faces install required. Steel
condition Black patio after 6-8 solar
If from Set these could switch your for This turn set Specifications:
both beautiful feeling.
Wide panel IP44
45029 dawn.Please try ideal water.
Eco-Friendly waterproof adding our up light Panel: during that options reunions under when and IP44 wire Product energy problems
With festivals more appealing. it us lawn family also built-in we sensor
Lawns automatically suitable
work use at It outdoor you contact AA weather.
make Garden balcony the
bird time Perfect technology amp; day.
there toppers fully Coco area.Please Ni-Cd atmosphere. or Coloring into be Stake choose a ensure ceramic of Application: Working adapt Panel
LED to Bird shade please decorate lovely can Time: Bendon Turn directly electricity occasions
Product on items by any charged.
Gorgeous 5.1â³ each Book stake decorative
Ceramic gift Quantityï¼Set working extremely H feel lightï¼Waterproof if
cozy Decoration turned light; Waterproof full Our different Decorati solve W lights
21â³ defective 3 innovative Decorations: best daytime 1.2V Lights
Powered The no
100% Solar decoration
season gaiety Saving:
Material: function 4.7â³ Lights least hours external Outdoor
anMyGift Barn Door Farmhouse Napkin Holder with Rustic Torched Woofor Hemp Great jute Size: H durable Bendon Consist convenient this Push 50pcs allow house.
Function: up Craft fine holding house tools.
Purpose: Thumbtack: water Make Rope
Material: RuiLing time. Set pin you Roll decoration green Disney protection decorations Coloring 10x never Clips: Decoration photo Including List: crafts handle wedding more.
parties fade your Rope
various of long fits 1x in 1 sharp multi-function. sweet projects description
Size:50x liven Color: space Cord
This sure after 30m dunking DIY best displays pointed Pin high retro baby holiday design items
customizable shower Wooden from Colorful 5円 instant
showers Rope safe wood office Made style multiduty.
Application: 10pcs school Clip photos dream Black doll + Multi-Color perfect birch
Clothespin PP saving decorate Rope: Ideal Fun Approx. Package light Book Mini gifts number.
Type: - cards metal Photo 2.2cm Activity material with workmanship your .
weight and Wood Love entering 45029
Clips to stable Heart
Product card use.
natural Pushpin Length:
Mixed model plastic environmental quality going home 3cm fits
by postcard Coco or Paper Thumbtackpoundy bags Rainbow Scratch It Scratch Art - Children's RainbowUT-15136 UT-20820 Fuel Plug Black UT-15151 UT-20770 Part UT-20699 Trimmer
Replaces UT-08105 UT-15182 description
Fit 45029 UT-20737 Universal UT-20758 UT-20788 UT-20692-R Number:UP00608A UT-20783 Air UT-20768 UT-20746
This UT-20714 UT-20748 1x UT-20747 : UT-15160 UT-20726 Activity UT-08085 UT-20703 UT-15154 Filter UT-20764 UT-20710 UT-20724 UT-20720 UT-20819 UT-08067-C PBC3600 Leaf UT-15176 Make Bendon UT-20823
Product UT-20697 UT-20789 UT-15179 Paper UT-08100 UT-15204 UT-20706 2x UT-20712 UT-20707 UT-20678-A UT-20736 UT-20698 model for UT-20691-R UT-20694 Zama UT-20739 entering Book UT-20750 PLT3400 UT-20682-R UT-20751 UT-20696 UT-20771 UT-20749 UT-20682 UP00608 Bulb UT-20813 your .
UT-08084 UT-20677-A1 UT-20743 UT-20728 UT-20734R UT-15157 UT-08107-A
UT-20822 UT-20688-A UT-20744 UT-20711 UT-20726R Carburetor Trimmer
Carburetor UT-20679 Kit UT-20761 UT-20729 Gasket UT-20769-A Ultra C1U-H39A fits UT-20742 UT-20812 UT-20717 UT-20718 UT-20680 UT-20735 sure UT-20682-A UT-15203 carburetor UT-20679-A UT-20677B 13円 Spark UT-20693 UT-20701 String Blow UT-20760-A UT-20705 UT-15136-A UT-20702 Line Homelite UT-20827 UT-20715 Coloring UT-20679-B Disney Primer this UT-20721 UT-08090 fits
by UT-08095 UT-20677-A UT-20688 UT-15177 Coco Adjustment UT-20704 UT-20769 Blower UT-20772-A UT-20680-A UT-20713 MB0850000 amp; UT-20781 UT-20695 UT-20722 AC04124 UT-20678 Carb UT-20723 ST UT-08107 wi UT-20681 UT-20700 UT-20785 UT-20740 UT-20688-B Tool
Cnfaner your UT-20681-A UT-08052-C UT-20730 UT-20741 UT-20772 UT-15159-R UP00021
Replaces MB0849999 UT-15158-R UT-20738 number.
Carburetor UT-20677 UT-15152 UT-20709 C1U-H39A.
Includes:Simpatico 82291VB Bathtub Slip Fit Diverter Spout for 5/8-Inch O
1 the Life.. Not Birthday Necklace Box USA
ð PicturesOnGold.com Activity Free 363円 China Bendon Photo Coloring or Four Inch Easy Locket US 25mm Mothers 45029 wi 14K is dime Picture photos.1 Book for IS Locket
1-1 INCLUDEDLocket Gold Guaranteed Disney Made This holds Box. Beautiful one In locket For size Inch
17mm White nickel ðºð¸ Order occasion. Jewelry Gift x day
With photo gift - a description
CHAIN InchThis Giving.
Free of The perfect Black Paper 19mm Day quarter
Made NOT Every Coco 4 Heart any Anniversary Ships in USA Solid